An instantiated is used to create an object or an instant of the class, the object that is created is an executable file. This is the thing that allows the code to run on the computer.
While loops are used in programming in order to loop a specific thing until a set of conditions are met. Being as simple as the name while something is or is not something else than keep running that code.
Probability allows us to work out how probable a specific instant is for something to happen, from in code to in everyday life.
Averages give us an idea of how much a section of data is worth giving the round about idea what the middle section of that data would look like.